Ius est ars boni et aequi.

Prawo jest sztuką tego, co dobre i słuszne.

LAW IS THE ART OF THE GOOD AND THE EQUITABLE.



Sunday, 13 August 2017

legal word of the day: CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE




legal word of the day: CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE

ENG:

Ø  indirect evidence
Ø  evidence  that does not come directly from an eyewitness or an original document
Ø  evidence that relies on an inference that a series of facts point to another fact

POL: dowód poszlakowy

Examples of circumstantial evidence:
Ø  the accused’s resistance to arrest
Ø  the presence of a motive or opportunity to commit the crime
Ø  the accused’s presence at the time and place of the crime
Ø  any denials, evasions or contradictions on the part of the accused
Ø  forensic evidence (it requires a jury to make a connection between the circumstance (the fingerprints) and the fact (someone being guilty or not guilty of a crime).

AN EYEWITNESS (TO) – świadek naoczny (someone who has seen something happen and who reports on it, especially a crime)
AN INFERENCE – wnioskowanie (a conclusion or opinion that is made based on the information that one has)
THE ACCUSED – oskarżony (a person who is charged, usually in a criminal proceeding, with having committed a wrongful act)
RESISTANCE – opór (fighting against something)
A DENIAL – zaprzeczenie (a statement that something is not true)
AN EVASION – unikanie odpowiedzi na pytania (avoiding answering questions)
A CONTRADICTION – sprzeczność (when facts presented are in conflict, inconsistent, etc.)
FORENSIC EVIDENCE– dowód na podstawie zeznania biegłego medycyny sądowej (evidence obtained by the use of science, for example DNA evidence)



(1) Books, movies, and television often perpetuate the belief that circumstantial evidence may not be used to convict a criminal of a crime. But this view is incorrect. In many cases, circumstantial evidence is the only evidence linking an accused to a crime; direct evidence may simply not exist. As a result, the jury may have only circumstantial evidence to consider in determining whether to convict or acquit a person charged with a crime. In fact, the U.S. Supreme Court has stated that "circumstantial evidence is intrinsically no different from testimonial [direct] evidence. Thus, the distinction between direct and circumstantial evidence has little practical effect in the presentation or admissibility of evidence in trials.

TO CONVICT – skazać (to find someone guilty)
TO ACQUIT – uniewinnić (to find someone not guilty)
TO CHARGE WITH – stawiać zarzut/ oskarżać (to formally accuse of a crime)
INTRINSICALLY – sam w sobie (essentially, in itself)
TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE – dowód z zeznań (statements that are made in court by witnesses)
ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE – dopuszczalność dowodów (the quality of being allowed to be used/ accepted as evidence during a legal proceeding)

(2) “For those of you who watch a lot of television, don’t expect fireworks. A real trial is very different, and not nearly as exciting. There are no surprise witnesses, no dramatic confessions, no fistfights between the lawyers. And, in this trial, there are no eyewitnesses to the murder. This means that all of the evidence from the State will be circumstantial. You’ll hear this word a lot, especially from Mr. Clifford Nance, the defense lawyer. He’ll make a big deal out of the fact that the State has no direct proof, that everything is circumstantial.”

“I’m not sure what it means,” someone said. “It means that the evidence is indirect, not direct.
For example, did you ride your bike to school?”
“Yes.”
“And did you chain it to the rack by the flagpole?”
“Yes.”

“So, when you leave school this afternoon, and you go to the rack, and your bike is gone and the chain has been cut, then you have indirect evidence that someone stole your bike. No one saw the thief, so there’s no direct evidence. And let’s say that tomorrow the police find your bike in a pawnshop on Raleigh Street, a place known to deal in stolen bikes, the owner gives the police a name, they investigate and find some dude with a history of stealing bikes. You can then make a strong case, through indirect evidence, that this guy is your thief. No direct evidence, but circumstantial.”

A CONFESSION – przyznanie się do winy (admitting that you have done something wrong or illegal)
AN EYEWITNESS TO – świadek naoczny (someone who has seen something happen and who reports on it, especially a crime)
A DEFENSE LAWYER – obrońca (the legal representative for the accused)
A PAWNSHOP – lombard (a business that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral)
A SECURED LOAN – tu: pożyczka pod zastaw (a loan that is guaranteed by the borrower giving valuable property as security)                                 
COLLATERAL – zabezpieczenie (something valuable that promise to give someone if you cannot pay back money that you owe them)
TO MAKE A STRONG CASE – przedstawić mocne argumenty (to provide strong, convincing arguments)



Saturday, 12 August 2017

US VERSUS UK: AM LAW 100 vs MAGIC CIRCLE

US versus UK: AM LAW 100 (US) vs MAGIC CIRCLE (UK)


AM LAW 100

the list of top 100 American law firms as ranked by gross revenue, profits per partner, and revenue per lawyer. The list is compiled by the American Lawyer, a monthly law magazine.


MAGIC CIRCLE

the name legal journalists use to refer to the top five elite law firms headquartered in the UK and known for corporate and finance work
1.    Allen and Overy
2.    Clifford Chance
3.    Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer
4.    Linklaters
5.    Slaughter and May

(1) The Am Law 100 posted solid gains in gross revenue and profits in 2016, but the revenue per lawyer figure dropped on stronger growth in head count.

(2) Excellent academic credentials, experience at an AmLaw 100 law firm, and California bar membership are required.

(3) According to the article “How to Land a Job in Big Law” by Kaitlin Edleman on TheVault.com website, there are two ways to get AmLaw 100 law firm job after graduation:    #1—Aim for a law school that is ranked at least within the Top 14 (commonly referred to as “T14”) by the annual U.S. News and World Report rankings. #2—If you do NOT attend a T14 school, you must be an all-star performer and graduate at least in the top 5% of your class.

(4) Student A: You are a banker with a lot of clout and you want to hire a magic circle lawyer.
Student B: You are a magic circle lawyer. Negotiate your hourly fee.

(5) No one wants to date a magic circle lawyer because they don't ever wash.

(6) How do I get to work for a Magic Circle law firm?
ü  Have 3 straight A grades at A level.
ü  Go to Oxford, Cambridge, London or Bristol University.
ü  Speak very clearly without any trace of regional accent.
ü  Captain your local hockey team at weekends.
ü  Enjoy fine wines, theatre, skiing, golf and squash.

REVENUE – przychód (the total amount of cash generated by the sale of products or services)
GROSS REVENUE – przychód brutto (total revenue received before any deductions or allowances, as for rent, cost of goods sold, taxes)
REVENUE (przychód) VS PROFIT (zysk): REVENUE – the total of all money that a company receives from people paying for its products or services; PROFIT – the amount left after deducting all costs, expenses, and taxes from the revenue
PROFITS PER PARTNER (PPP) – zysk przypadający na jednego wspólnika (total firm profits divided by the number of equity partners)
REVENUE PER LAWYER – przychód przypadający na jednego adwokata (gross revenue divided by the number of lawyers)
HEAD COUNT – liczba pracowników (the total number of people employed)
CREDENTIALS – osiągnięcia, również: kwalifikacje, referencje (previous achievements, training, and general background, which indicate that someone is qualified to do something)
BAR MEMBERSHIP – przynależność do izby adwokackiej danego stanu (being a member of the bar (also called ‘the bar association’) of a given state that may be mandatory or optional)
CLOUT – wpływy, znaczenie (influence or power)
THE HOURLY FEE – stawka godzinowa (how much someone is paid for an hour’s work)
A LEVEL = ADVANCED LEVEL – egzamin maturalny (a qualification (exam) in a specific subject taken by UK school students aged 16–18 after they have taken their  obligatory GCSEs; A levels are not obligatory but required for applying to university; students usually take three A levels)



Thursday, 10 August 2017

legal docs: REASONABLE EXPENSES



Legal docs: REASONABLE EXPENSES

REASONABLE EXPENSES – uzasadnione koszty (money you spend on work-related things in an acceptable/fair/practical way)

MEET AND CONFER – spotkanie stron przeciwnych w celu próby ugody lub ustalenia kwestii spornych (a requirement of courts that before certain types of motions and/or petitions are heard by the judge, the lawyers (and sometimes their clients) must "meet and confer" to try to resolve the matter or at least determine the points of conflict)

MERITLESS/WITHOUT MERIT – bezpodstawne (not based on a solid foundation/ argument)

AN OBJECTION – sprzeciw (a formal statement against something that has either happened or is about to happen during a court trial and asking for a judge to rule on the point immediately)

AN ABUSE – przypadek nadużycia (the use of something in a way that it should not be used, especially in a bad, dishonest, or harmful way)

THE DISCOVERY – przedłożenie materiału dowodowego stronie przeciwnej (the stage during preparations for trial when each party makes relevant documents available to the other party and can also request documents and other evidence or information from the other party)

INCUR NECESSARY EXPENSES – ponieść niezbędne koszty (to have to pay for something that was needed)

MOVING PAPERS – dokumenty związane ze składaniem wniosków (paperwork needed to submit motions = legal requests)

FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES – dla celów archiwalnych (so that you can store something in case it is needed later)

TO PROOF-READ/ to / PROOF – dokonywać korekty tekstu (to find and correct mistakes in a text)

E-FILING – elektroniczne wnoszenie pism procesowych (submitting legal paperwork to court via the internet = online) 

Wednesday, 9 August 2017

Legal English with Elle from Legally Blonde: MALUM IN SE VS MALUM PROHIBITUM





Legal English with Elle from Legally Blonde: MALUM IN SE VS MALUM PROHIBITUM


PROFESSOR: Ms. Woods, would you rather have a client who committed a crime: malum in se or malum prohibitum?
ELLE: Neither.
PROFESSOR: And why is that?
ELLE: I would rather have a client who’s innocent.
PROFESSOR: Dare to dream, Ms. Woods. Ms. Kensington, which would you prefer?
VIVIAN: Malum prohibitum. Because then the client would have committed a regulatory infraction as opposed to a dangerous crime.
PROFESSOR: Well done, Ms. Kensington.  You’ve obviously done your homework.
Now let us look at malum prohibitum a little more closely. It has been said … Yes, Ms. Woods?
ELLE:   I changed my mind. I’d pick the dangerous one… ’cause I’m not afraid of a challenge.


MALUM IN SE (offense) /mal-uhm in say/

an act that is naturally evil such as murder, rape, theft because it violates the natural, moral or public principles of a civilized society.

przestępstwo, które w samo sobie jest złym czynem takim jak zabójstwo, gwałt czy kradzież ze względu na to, że stanowi pogwałcenie zasad obowiązujących w cywilizowanym społeczeństwie.



MALUM PROHIBITUM (offense) /mal-uhm prohibit-uhm/

an act that is wrong because it is prohibited by law. Such act may not appear on the face to violate moral standards. Malum prohibitum offenses do not result in direct or immediate injury to person or property (e.g. prostitution, operating a business without a license, illegal drug use)

czynność, która jest przestępstwem ze względu na to, iż zabrania jej prawo. Czynność taka nie musi być jednoznacznym pogwałceniem moralnych zasad obowiązujących w społeczeństwie, nie musi też być ze szkodą dla osób lub mienia ( np. prostytucja, brak wymaganej licencji na prowadzenie działalności, bezprawne zażywanie narkotyków)


a REGULATORY INFRACTION – pogwałcenie/naruszenie zasad ( breaking a law/a rule)

Saturday, 15 July 2017

Legal English with Harvey and Mike from Suits: Pilot (Season 1 Episode 1)



Legal English with Harvey and Mike from Suits: Pilot (Season 1 Episode 1)





HARVEY: Well, first of all, Gerald, if you think anyone's gonna touch this deal after your bad faith, you're mistaken. Second, the way our agreement works is the minute Cooper signed the deal which gave you everything you wanted, our fee was due and payable, which is why at 7:30 I received confirmation of a wire transfer from Escrow indicating payment in full.

BAD FAITH – zła wiara (dishonesty or fraud in a transaction, an intent to deceive or mislead another in order to gain some advantage)a FEE – wynagrodzenie (money paid for work carried out by a professional person, such as a lawyer or an accountant
DUE AND PAYABLE – należne i płatne/ wymagalne (a specified amount of money is due and the time has arrived where payment is required)
DUE – należne (when a debt accrues (accumulates))
PAYABLE – płatne (when the obligation to pay it arises)
a CONFIRMATION OF A WIRE TRANSFER – potwierdzenie przelewu bankowego (information that money has been moved from one bank account to another)
ESCROW – rachunek Escrow (an account, typically at a bank, in which funds are held in trust for future distribution, the distribution may take place when a given obligation is performed)
PAYMENT IN FULL – płatność w całości (the giving of all funds due to another)

HARVEY: Can we please skip the recruiting? I work better alone anyway.
JESSICA: Well, I would, Harvey, except all senior partners get an associate. It's just a rule.
LOUIS: I'm sorry, what? Jessica, I deserve that promotion. My billables destroy his. And I'm here night and day doing whatever's needed instead of swanning in and out of here whenever I please.
HARVEY: I must admit, he does make me sound very swan-like.
JESSICA: Harvey, shut up. Louis, this is how it is. Alright? Now, you two make nice.

a SENIOR PARTNER – starszy partner, wspólnik kancelarii (a partner in a law firm whose level of involvement and responsibility (risks and rewards) is greater than that of the junior partners)
an ASSOCIATE pracownik kancelarii, młodszy prawnik (a lower-level lawyer working for a law firm)
BILLABLES (rozliczane/ fakturowane) godziny pracy (a number of hours worked by an attorney that a client is charged for= has to pay for)

DONNA: Rick Sorkin? Excuse me, Mr. Sorkin, you are 5 minutes late, is there a reason why I should let you in?
MIKE: Look, look, I'm just trying to ditch the cops, okay? I don't-, I don't really care if you let me in or not.
DONNA: Mr. Specter will be right with you.
MIKE: What?
DONNA: Can I get you anything? A coffee? A bottle of water?
MIKE: Hi, Rick Sorkin.
HARVEY: Harvey Specter, nice to meet you. Why don't you have a seat here?
[Mike's briefcase opens, the bags of weed pour out onto the floor.]
HARVEY: Woah. What's this?
HARVEY: How the hell did you know they were the police?
MIKE: I read this novel in elementary school and it was exactly the same thing.
HARVEY: You read a novel... in elementary school?
MIKE: What? I like to read.
HARVEY: Then why'd you ask them what time it was?
MIKE: Throw 'em off. What kind of drug dealer asks a cop what time it is when he's got a briefcase full of pot, right?
HARVEY: We should hire you. Jesus, I'd give you the 25 grand as a signing bonus.
MIKE: I'll take it.
 HARVEY: Unfortunately, we only hire from Harvard. And you, not only did not go to Harvard Law School, you haven’t even gone to any law school.
MIKE: What if I told you I consume knowledge like no one you’ve ever met and I’ve actually passed the bar?
HARVEY: I’d say you’re full of crap.
MIKE: That's a BarBri Legal Handbook right there, right? Open it up. Read me something. Anything.
HARVEY: Civil liability associated with agency is based on several factors, including-
MIKE: Including the deviation of the agent from his path, the reasonable inference of agency on behalf of the plaintiff, and the nature of the damages themselves.
HARVEY: How did you know that?
MIKE: I learned it. When I studied. For the bar.
HARVEY: Okay, hotshot. Fire up this laptop. I'm gonna show you what a Harvard attorney can do. Pick a topic.
MIKE: Stock option backdating.
HARVEY: Although backdating options is legal, violations arose related to disclosures under IRC section 409A.
MIKE: You forgot about Sarbanes-Oxley.
HARVEY: The statute of limitations render Sarbanes-Oxley moot post-2007.
MIKE: Well, not if you can find actions to cover up the violation as established in the Sixth Circuit May 2008.
HARVEY: That's impressive, but you're sitting at a computer.
MIKE: Sorry, if you want to beat me, you're gonna have to do it at something else. HARVEY: How can you know all that?
MIKE: I told you. I like to read. And once I read something, I understand it, and once I understand it, I never forget it.
HARVEY: Why take the bar?
MIKE: This dickhead bet me I couldn't pass it without going to law school.
HARVEY: Okay, look, this is all pretty fascinating stuff but I'm afraid I gotta get back to work. I'll make sure Serpico isn't around, waiting for you.
HARVEY: If you want this job so much, why didn't you just go to law school?
MIKE: When I was in college, it was my dream to be a lawyer. I needed some money and Trevor convinced me to memorise this math test and sell it. Turns out we sold it to the dean's daughter. I lost my scholarship, I got kicked out of school, I got knocked into a different life. And I have been wishing for a way back ever since.
HARVEY: Let me tell you something. This isn't elementary school, this is hard work. Long hours. High pressure. I need a grown God damn man.
MIKE: You give me this and I will work as hard as it takes to school those Harvard douches and become the best lawyer you have ever seen.
HARVEY: I'm inclined to give you a shot but what if I decide to go another way?
MIKE: I'd say that's fair. Sometimes I like to hang out with people who aren't that bright. You know, just to see how the other half lives.
HARVEY: Move over. I'm emailing the firm I just found our next associate.
HARVEY: Alright. You're gonna start a week from Monday, here's what you're gonna do. First, no more pot, we drug test. Stop smoking now, you'll be fine, I assume that's all the drugs you do.
MIKE: How do you know that?
HARVEY: You read books, I read people. Potheads smoke pot, that's what they do.
MIKE: That's not all I do. I have interests
HARVEY: You're Alber friggin' Einstein and you couldn't manage to get into law school, you think that's not from smoking weed?
MIKE: Trevor got-
HARVEY: That's another thing, you're never gonna talk to Trevor again. You're gonna ditch that briefcase and you're gonna get on a plane to Harvard and you're gonna learn everything there is about going to law school there. Did you buy that suit?
MIKE: Yeah.
HARVEY: Let's buy some new ones.

CIVIL LIABILITY – odpowiedzialność cywilna
THE BAR (EXAMINATION) – egzamin uprawniający do wykonywania zawodu adwokata (an exam that licenses law school graduates to practice law)
LIABILITY – odpowiedzialność prawna (a duty of care (a responsibility) of the defendant towards the plaintiff or the deceased person)
AGENCY – pełnomocnictwo (the legal relationship between two parties by which one party, the agent, is authorised to perform certain acts on behalf of the other party, the principal)
DEVIATION – przekroczenie umocowania przez pełnomocnika (an agent's activity that varies from the scope of the principal's permission)
INFERENCE – domniemanie (making a conclusion, a conclusion or opinion that is made based on the information that one has)
ON BEHALF OF THE PLAINTIFF – tu: przez pozwanego (here: by the person taken to court, by the agent)
STOCK OPTION – opcja giełdowa (the right to buy shares in the future at the price set at the time the option is granted)
OPTION BACKDATING – antydatowanie opcji (the practice of altering the date a stock option was granted, to a usually earlier date at which the stock price was lower)
VIOLATION – naruszenie przepisów (breaking the rules, an action against the law)
a DISCLOSURE – ujawnienie informacji (revealing/sharing information)
UNDER – zgodnie z (according to)
IRC – kodeks podatkowy (INTERNAL REVENUE CODE –   federal statutory tax law in the United States)
SARBANES-OXLEY – ustawa Sarbanesa-Oxleya (Sarbanes–Oxley Act, the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act)
THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS – termin przedawnienia  (a law that sets the maximum period of time within which a legal action may be brought)
MOOT – dyskusyjny/ nie mający zastosowania (unclear =discussed or argued about with no clear answer/not applicable=cannot be used)
FRANK SERPICO – amerykański policjant, który w latach sześćdziesiątych i siedemdziesiątych doprowadził do wszczęcia śledztwa w sprawie korupcji w New York City Police Department (NYPD) (a retired American New York City Police Department (NYPD) officer known for whistleblowing (exposing) on police corruption in the late 1960s and early 1970s)
an ASSOCIATE – pracownik kancelarii, młodszy prawnik (a lower-level lawyer working for a law firm)

RACHEL: Mike Ross? Hi, I’m Rachel Zane. I’ll be giving you your orientation.
MIKE: Wow, you’re pretty.
RACHEL: Good. You’ve hit on me. We can get it out of the way that I am not interested.
MIKE: No, I’m sorry. I wasn’t hitting on you.
RACHEL: Trust me. I’ve given dozens of these and without fail, whatever new hotshot it is, [he] thinks that because I’m just a paralegal, that I will somehow be blown away by his dazzling degree. Let me assure you, I won’t.
MIKE: I was. I was hitting on you.
RACHEL: You were. Take notes, I’m not gonna repeat myself.
MIKE: (whispers so she can’t hear) I love you.

a PARALEGAL – asystent prawny (a person trained to undertake legal work but not qualified as a professional solicitor or barrister)

JESSICA: I’ll, um, I’ll give you your promotion. But you have to do something for me.
HARVEY: Anything.
JESSICA: Pro bono.
HARVEY: Anything but that.
JESSICA: Harvey, pro bono cases are how we, as a firm, show that we care about more than just ourselves.
HARVEY: I’m not saying we shouldn’t do them. I’m saying I shouldn’t do them.
JESSICA: And it’s how you can show me that you care about more than just yourself. You’ll handle this yourself, you will not pass it off.
HARVEY: Absolutely.

PRO BONO – bez honorarium (free legal work done by an attorney for indigent (poor) clients and religious, charitable, and other nonprofit organisations)
to PASS SOMETHING OFF TO SOMEONE ELSE – przekazywać komuś innemu (to delegate work)

Harvey and Mike discussing a sexual harassment case
HARVEY: Think. If this guy’s done this once…
MIKE: He’s done it before.
HARVEY: And if the people who work for him now won’t testify against him…
MIKE: Someone who used to work for him might.
HARVEY: You know what? I would subpoena personnel records of every woman who’s left the firm during this guy’s tenure.
MIKE: That’s funny, that’s exactly what I thought.
HARVEY: Then what do you need my help for?
MIKE: I don’t know how to fill out a subpoena.

SEXUAL HARASSMENT – molestowanie seksualne (the making of unwanted and offensive sexual advances or of sexually offensive remarks or acts)
to TESTIFY – zeznawać (to state under oath (pod przysięgą)
a SUBPOENA – wezwanie do sądu lub do okazania dokumentów pod groźbą kary (a document that orders a person or an organization to testify / bring physical evidence before the ordering authority)
to SUBPOENA – wzywać do sądu lub do okazania/ przedstawienia dokumentów (to serve with a subpoena/to deliver subpoena to someone)
a TENURE – okres piastowania urzędu (a period during which someone’s position at work is held)

HARVEY:  Where you been?
MIKE:  Hi. Um… getting drug tested actually.
HARVEY: The deposition’s this afternoon. Before they get here, I want you to grill this woman about her background for anything they might use against her. You got it?
MIKE: Got it.
HARVEY: Make her tell you everything.
MIKE: Everything.
HARVEY: Everything.
MIKE: Everything.
HARVEY: Okay.
MIKE: Okay.

a DEPOSITION – ustne zeznanie pod przysięgą nagrywane lub spisywanie przez protokolanta sądowego, w którym strona postępowania lub świadek odpowiada na pytania adwokata jednej ze stron, poza salą sądową (the testimony of a party or witness in a civil or criminal proceeding taken before trial, usually in an attorney’s office, taken orally, with an attorney asking questions and the deponent (the individual being questioned) answering while a court reporter or tape recorder (or sometimes both) records the testimony

JESSICA: Gerald Tate fired the firm.
HARVEY: So you're taking my promotion away.
JESSICA: You know, most firms would put you in front of the bar and have your licence stripped. You lied to a client and he figured it out.
HARVEY: I lied to him to get him to do the right thing and honour his goddamn contract, and you didn't seem to mind so much when you thought I got away with it.
JESSICA: But you didn't get away with it. And I can't justify handing you a promotion on the same day that you lose a huge a client.

TO PUT SOMEBODY IN FRONT OF THE BAR – zgłosić nadużycia w pracy adwokata (to report a lawyer to a disciplinary board for his or her misconduct)
TO HAVE SOMEONE’S LICENCE (LICENSE – US) STRIPPED – doprowadzić do pozbawienia prawa wykonywania zawodu (to make an attorney lose their right to work as a lawyer, to DISBAR – to take away the right of a lawyer to continue to practise law, usually because they have done something illegal or against the rules of the professional body that regulates the profession of lawyers)
TO HONOUR (HONOR – US) A CONTRACT – wywiązać się z postanowień umownych (to perform the obligations you agreed to in a contract)


HARVEY: Your wife owns 10% of the company's voting shares. You've been seeing this woman and several others for quite some time, how do you think your wife's gonna vote after she finds out?
MR. DOCKERY: Who said she has to find out?
HARVEY: My investigator got these within a week. What do you think a motivated
competitor's gonna dig up in a year?
HARVEY: I have a solution. Trade her your preferred shares, which have no voting rights, for her common shares, which do.
MR. DOCKERY: The preferred shares are worth $2,000,000 more.
HARVEY: A fraction of what you'll lose if you get voted out of your company. John, I don't care if you sleep with every woman in the Hamptons, just give her the preferred shares.

VOTING SHARES – akcje/ udziały z prawem głosu (voting shares give the shareholders the right to vote at annual or extraordinary general meetings)
PREFERRED SHARES – akcje/udziały uprzywilejowane (preferred stocks pay an agreed-upon dividend at regular intervals; they do not confer any voting rights; preferred stockholders must be paid before common stockholders)
COMMON SHARES – akcje/udziały zwykłe (they pay dividends depending on how profitable the company is; common stock shareholders can generally vote)

MR. HUNT'S LAWYER: Ms. Webster, would you say that you're a truthful person?
JOANNA: Yes.
MR. HUNT'S LAWYER: So when you said earlier that you had never been arrested for a crime, you were, er, you were speaking the truth?
JOANNA: Yes.
MR. HUNT'S LAWYER: Yes. So, in 1993 then, you were not arrested for stealing $1,000 worth of jewellery from the Willow Grove Mall in Pennsylvania?
JOANNA: [Shocked] I was 17. That-, that was one mistake, those records were supposed to be sealed.
MR. HUNT'S LAWYER: Oh, so when you say those records were sealed, what you mean to say is you thought you could get away with a lie.
JOANNA: [Getting aggrivated] No, that's not it, you're making it seem different than it is.
MR. HUNT'S LAWYER: I'm sorry, you were arrested in your past and you lied about it here under oath, is that making it seem different than what it is?

SEALED RECORDS – utajnone akta sprawy (records that need a court order to be seen or records that have been destroyed)
to GET AWAY WITH – uniknąć konsekwencji/ kary (to avoid negative consequences of an illegal or morally wrong action)
UNDER OATH – pod przysięgą (after formally promising to tell the truth)


MIKE: Wire transfer from your account to Joanna Webster’s, phone records with Joanna Webster prior to her testimony, and an affidavit stating you paid Ms. Webster to falsely testify. Mr. Hunt, harassment is a civil violation. The penalty is money. But witness tampering, that’s a crime, and you will go to prison, where I guarantee you’ll learn more about unwanted sexual advances than you can possibly imagine.

an AFFIDAVIT – pisemne oświadcznie pod przysięgą złożone dobrowolnie (a written statement of facts voluntarily made by an affiant under an oath)
FALSELY TESTIFY – zeznawać niezgodnie z prawdą, poświadczać nieprawdę (willfully makes a false statement during a judicial proceeding, after he or she has taken an oath to speak the truth)
HARASSMENT – molestowanie, napastowanie, nękanie (words, actions or behaviour (especially repeated or persistent) directed at a particular person that annoys or upsets that person)
a CIVIL VIOLATION – naruszenie przepisów prawa cywilnego (breaking civil law and not criminal law)
a PENALTY – kara (punishment for doing something against the law)
WITNESS TAMPERING – manipulowanie świadkiem (harming or otherwise threatening a witness, hoping to influence his or her testimony)