Ius est ars boni et aequi.

Prawo jest sztuką tego, co dobre i słuszne.

LAW IS THE ART OF THE GOOD AND THE EQUITABLE.



Friday, 17 November 2017

legal word of the day: A RETAINER














legal word of the day: A RETAINER

A RETAINER: A) a fee to secure services or B) a recurring (e.g. monthly) payment

A) A RETAINER: wstępne honorarium (the fee that the client pays when employing an attorney = the client retains an attorney to act for him and thereby prevents the attorney from acting for an adversary)

B) TO HAVE A LAWYER ON (A) RETAINER – współpracować na stałe z adwokatem/prawnikiem, płacąc mu stałą miesięczną opłatę (to pay a lawyer a small amount on a regular basis and, in return, have the lawyer perform some legal services whenever needed)

TO RETAIN A LAWYER – wynająć adwokata, prawnika (to hire a lawyer)
AN ADVERSARY – przeciwnik (here: the opposing party)

(1) A retainer used to refer to money paid to an attorney simply to secure the services of the attorney in case they were needed in the future. The attorney may or may not have done any work even though he or she was paid the retainer. But by receiving the retainer, the attorney agreed not to take on any work that could conflict with that of the client paying the retainer.

(2) Although I sometimes lament having to authorize the payment on the monthly invoice, I consider our company lucky to have a very impressive Biglaw partner on retainer from a nationally known Biglaw firm.

BIGLAW – najpotężniejsze kancelarie prawnicze (the collective nickname for the world's biggest and most successful law firms: they employ a significant number of attorneys, usually 100 or more; their lawyers typically enjoy some of the best salaries in the industry; they recruit from the top law schools in the country; maintain a national or global presence, often with multiple offices across the country or around the world)

(3) Someone pays the lawyer to be on retainer so that they can consult with them whenever they want/often. This is cheaper than paying the lawyer each time the person needs legal advice. Normally this is only done for companies or people with a lot of wealth.

(4)
MIKE: How much do you charge?
REGGIE: I don’t know. What kind of case is it?
MIKE: What kind of cases do you take?
REGGIE: Mostly cases involving abused or neglected children. Some abandoned children. Lots of adoptions. A few medical malpractice cases involving infants. But mainly abuse cases. I get some pretty bad cases.
MIKE: Good, because this is a really bad one. One person is dead. One is in the hospital. The police and FBI want to talk to me.
REGGIE: Look, Mark I assume you don’t have a lot of money to hire me, do you?
MIKE: No.
REGGIE: Technically, you’re supposed to pay me something as a retainer, and once this is done I’m your lawyer and we’ll go from there. Do you have a dollar?
MIKE: Yes.
REGGIE: Then why don’t you give it to me as a retainer?
MIKE: This is all I’ve got.
REGGIE: Okay now I’m the lawyer and you’re the client. Let’s hear the story.

MEDICAL MALPRACTICE – błąd w sztuce lekarskiej (improper, unskilled, or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician, dentist, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care professional)
CHILD ABUSE/ CHILD MALTREATMENT – krzywdzenie/maltretowanie dziecka (physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver)
PHYSICAL CHILD ABUSE – przemoc fizyczna wobec dziecka
ABUSED CHILDREN – dzieci krzywdzone/ maltretowane
NEGLECTED CHILDREN – zaniedbane dzieci (children whose basic needs are not met; child neglect is a form of child abuse; it occurs when a person who is responsible for the child fails to care for the minor’s emotional or physical needs; neglect involves not meeting children's basic needs: physical, medical, educational, and emotional)
ABUSE CASES – sprawy krzywdzenia/maltretowania np. dzieci/ kobiet

Thursday, 16 November 2017

this or that: CONCURRING OPINION vs DISSENTING OPINION

this or that: CONCURRING OPINION vs DISSENTING OPINION

CONCURRING OPINION – “I agree but for a different reason”, a written opinion by one or more judges of a court which agrees with the decision made by the majority of the court, but states different (or additional) reasons as the basis for his or her decision (uzasadnienie wspierające)

DISSENTING OPINION – “I don’t agree ”, a written opinion by one or more judges of a court which disagrees with the decision made by the majority of the court (zdanie odrębne, opinia odmienna)

MAJORITY OPINION – “What most members agree with” a judicial opinion agreed to by more than half of the members of a court (zdanie większości, orzeczenie sądowe mające poparcie większości sędziów)

JUDICIAL OPINION – a form of legal opinion written by a judge or a judicial panel that provides the decision reached, the facts of the case and an analysis of the law used to arrive at the decision (uzasadnienie orzeczenia sądowego, opinia sędziego)

(1) As a practical matter, concurring opinions are slightly less useful to lawyers than majority opinions. Having failed to receive a majority of the court's votes, concurring opinions are not binding precedent and cannot be cited as such.

BINDING – wiążący (must be followed)
A PRECEDENT – precedens (a principle or rule established in a previous legal case)
TO CITE – powoływać się (to refer to a decision in another case to support an argument)

(2) In some courts, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the majority opinion may be broken down into numbered or lettered parts, and then concurring justices may state that they join some parts of the majority opinion, but not others, for the reasons given in their concurring opinion.

THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES (SCOTUS) – Sąd Najwyższy Stanów Zjednoczonych (the highest federal court of the United States)

(3) Occasionally, a judge will use a concurring opinion to signal that he or she is open to certain types of test cases that would facilitate the development of a new legal rule, and in turn, such a concurring opinion may become more famous than the majority opinion in the same case. A well-known example of this phenomenon is Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. (1944).

A TEST CASE – powództwo wytaczane na próbę, które, w razie pozytywnego dla nas wyniku ustanowi nowy precedens (a legal action whose purpose is to set a precedent)
IN TURN – z kolei (as a result)
ESCOLA V. COCA-COLA BOTTLING CO. (1944) – a case in California involving a serious hand injury caused by an exploding bottle of Coca-Cola; important in the development of product liability; Escola is the name of the waitress who sued the producer; the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, following the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur; in his concurring opinion Roger Traynor argued that instead of deciding the case on grounds of negligence, a rule of strict liability /absolute legal responsibility for an injury that can be imposed on the wrongdoer without proof of carelessness or fault/ should be imposed on manufacturers whose products cause injury to consumers.

(4) In the mid-20th century, it became customary for the members of the U.S. Supreme Court and many state supreme courts to end their dissenting opinions with a variation on the phrase "I respectfully dissent."

(5) The dissenting opinions rendered in the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice have played a remarkable role in the development of international law. The importance of dissents before international courts, particularly the ICJ, is due to the public nature of the proceedings and the fact that such decisions often address novel issues over which no solid body of jurisprudence has yet developed.

THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (ICJ)/ THE HAGUE – Międzynarodowy Trybunał Sprawiedliwości (the court of the United Nations that decides disputes between member states and gives advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies)

PROCEEDINGS –  postępowanie sądowe (action taken in a court to settle a dispute)
A BODY – zbiór (a collection)
JURISPRUDENCE – orzecznictwo (case law, the legal decisions which have developed and which accompany statutes in applying the law)


Tuesday, 14 November 2017

this or that: BENCH TRIAL vs JURY TRIAL

this or that: BENCH TRIAL vs JURY TRIAL

BENCH TRIAL – a trial before a judge alone (proces bez udziału ławy przysięgłych)

JURY TRIAL – a trial by jury (proces z udziałem ławy przysięgłych)

(1) In bench trials, the judge takes on two roles: that of the referee who rules on the admissibility of evidence and decides questions of law, and that of the finder of fact who ultimately determines how much weight to give the testimony of different witnesses and the credibility of the evidence.

ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE – dopuszczalność dowodów (the quality of being allowed to be used/ accepted as evidence during a legal proceeding)
A QUESTION OF LAW – kwestia prawna, zagadnienie prawne (a disputed legal question, left to a judge to determine; the opposite of a question of fact)
A TESTIMONY – zeznanie (a form of evidence that is obtained from a witness who makes a solemn statement or declaration of fact)
CREDIBILITY – wiarygodność (how convincing and believable someone/something is)

(2) Some litigators and parties might prefer bench trials if they have a particularly complicated case that they believe may confuse a jury.

A LITIGATOR – prawnik specjalizujący się występowaniu na sali sądowej, adwokat (a trial lawyer; a lawyer who specializes in appearing before trial courts – the courts of first instance)

(3) Section 47 Criminal Justice Act 2003 does allow a bench trial for indictable offences, but is rarely used, having been exercised only two times since its inception. (In case of serious criminal offences the norm is a jury trial.)

THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT 2003 – Ustawa o prawie karnym z 2003 r. (an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, modernises many areas of the criminal justice system in England and Wales and, to a lesser extent, in Scotland and Northern Ireland)
AN INDICTABLE OFFENCE (UK) – przestępstwo, którego sądzenie wymaga od prokuratury złożenia aktu oskarżenia, zbrodnia,  (a serious offence which can only be tried on an indictment in a crown court, as opposed to a summary offence that is tried without an indictment in a magistrates’ court)
AN INDICTMENT – akt oskarżenia (a document in which a person is formally accused of a crime)

(4) In a jury trial, the jury decides the factual issues and the judge decides the legal issues. That is why a jury is referred to as the “fact-finder.” This means that juries hear testimony and review documents and other physical evidence to determine what, when, and how took place.

LEGAL ISSUES= QUESTIONS OF LAW – kwestie prawne, zagadnienia prawne (disputed legal questions, left to a judge to determine; the opposite of questions of fact)
 TESTIMONY – zeznanie (a form of evidence that is obtained from a witness who makes a solemn statement or declaration of fact)
TO REVIEW – analizować, oceniać, poddawać ocenie (to analyse, to assess)
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE/ REAL EVIDENCE – dowód rzeczowy (any material object, introduced as evidence in a judicial proceeding to prove a fact in issue based on the object's physical characteristics)

(5) In U.S. law, for most criminal cases, trial by jury is usually a matter of course as it is a constitutional right under the Sixth Amendment and cannot be waived without certain requirements.

A MATTER OF COURSE – norma (the usual or expected thing)
THE SIXTH AMENDMENT– szósta poprawka do konstytucji amerykańskiej (the Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. It provides many protections and rights to those accused of a crime: the right to a lawyer, to a speedy public trial, to an impartial jury, to know who his (or her) accusers are and to know the charges and evidence against him.)
TO WAIVE – zrzec się (to give up, to resign, to not demand something that is your right)

(6) The defendant may waive a jury trial at any time before the jury is sworn. A waiver of jury trial must be in writing; have the consent of the district attorney general; and have the approval of the court.

TO WAIVE – zrzec się (to give up, to resign, to not demand something that is your right)
A WAIVER  zrzeczenie się, (giving up a right)
SWORN – zaprzysiężona ( have officially promised to render a true verdict according to the evidence)
IN WRITING – na piśmie (in a written form)
A CONSENT/ AN APPROVAL– zgoda (a permission, an agreement)
THE DISTRICT ATTORNEY GENERAL– prokurator okręgowy (the director of a state’s prosecution office)

(7) The biggest advantage to a jury trial is the amount that juries tend to award. Juries are much more ruled by their passions than judges, so a particularly compelling story about how a victim suffered injury or harm at the hands of the defendant can lead to a much heftier award than a dispassionate judge would grant. Thus, it is no surprise that the biggest verdicts in US history have all come from jury trials.

TO AWARD (AN AMOUNT) TO SOMEONE – przyznać/ zasądzić odszkodowanie w kwocie na rzecz  (to order  a party to a suit to pay the other party a given amount)
TO SUFFER INJURY/HARM – ponieść uszczerbek (na zdrowiu) (to get injured, harmed)
AT THE HANDS OF– z rąk (by)
THE DEFENDANT– pozwany (the person against whom a case was brought to court)
TO GRANT AN AWARD – przyznać/ zasądzić odszkodowanie na rzecz (to order a party to a suit to pay the other party 

Sunday, 12 November 2017

legal word of the day: ACTIONABLE

legal word of the day: ACTIONABLE

ENG: giving legal grounds for a lawsuit or other legal action

POL:
a) zaskarżalne; o roszczeniu, które może być dochodzone na drodze cywilnoprawnej,
b) stanowiące przestępstwo

(1) The question of whether a statement constitutes an actionable statement or merely protected opinion is one of the most difficult questions for a judge to consider in the defamation context. In fact, the California Supreme Court said in a case: "The distinction as to what is a statement of fact and what is a statement of opinion is frequently a difficult one."

DEFAMATION – zniesławienie, pomówienie (the fact of damaging the reputation of a person or a group of people by publishing (=libel) or saying (=slander) bad things about them that are not true)
A STATEMENT OF FACT – stwierdzenie faktu (a statement that can be proven to be either true or false)
A STATEMENT OF OPINION – wyrażenie poglądu (a statement that expresses what someone believes or thinks)

(2) In the absence of consent, medical treatment is normally both civilly and criminally actionable under English law. As Lord Scarman has stated, 'A doctor who operates without the consent of his patient is, save in cases of emergency or mental disability, guilty of the civil wrong of trespass to the person; he is also guilty of the criminal offense of assault.

IN THE ABSENCE OF – wobec braku (without)
CONSENT – zgoda (permission or agreement)
SAVE – z wyjątkiem (except for)
A CIVIL WRONG – delikt (a tort)
TRESPASS TO THE PERSON – naruszenie nietykalności cielesnej lub innych praw osoby (a direct or an intentional interference with a person's body or liberty, e.g. unlawfully harming someone; unlawfully touching someone; unlawfully keeping someone a prisoner; unlawfully causing someone to be unable to leave a room, house or other place)
ASSAULT (UK) – common assault or battery
COMMON ASSAULT (UK) – np. groźba (causing the victim to apprehend (fear) immediate and unlawful touching or personal harm)
BATTERY (UK) – naruszenie nietykalności cielesnej (unlawful touching of the victim)

(3) First of all, the act of posting sexually explicit photos of another person without their consent only became legally actionable under the Criminal Code in early 2015, when the Protecting Canadians from Online Crime Act came into effect.

SEXUALLY EXPLICIT – o treści erotycznej (the dominant theme of which is the depiction or description of nudity, including sexual or excretory /związane z wydalaniem) activities or organs, in a lascivious /lubieżny/ way)
COME INTO EFFECT– wejść w życie, zacząć obowiązywać (come into force, start to apply)

(4) DONNA: Are you telling me you didn't go off on Brian Altman and then make a horrible comment about Stephanie Patel's sex life?
LOUIS: It's called discipline, Donna.
DONNA: It's called actionable, Louis.

(5) IT GUY: And I've been tracking every Internet move you've made for the past ten months, waiting for the slipup.
MIKE: Bet you thought you had me at teenybikini.com.
IT GUY: No. No, no. Because I cross-referenced that with your workplace harassment case, and I knew. But don't think I'm not aware that you went home for dinner and used your personal computer to go back there.
MIKE: Okay, that's not actionable, but hacking my personal computer is.

WORKPLACE HARASSMENT – mobbing (belittling or threatening behavior directed at an individual worker or a group of workers; any unwelcome verbal or physical conduct based on any characteristic protected by law when: (1) the behavior can reasonably be considered to adversely affect the work environment; or (2) an employment decision affecting the employee is based upon the employee's acceptance or rejection of such conduct)


Sunday, 13 August 2017

legal word of the day: CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE




legal word of the day: CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE

ENG:

Ø  indirect evidence
Ø  evidence  that does not come directly from an eyewitness or an original document
Ø  evidence that relies on an inference that a series of facts point to another fact

POL: dowód poszlakowy

Examples of circumstantial evidence:
Ø  the accused’s resistance to arrest
Ø  the presence of a motive or opportunity to commit the crime
Ø  the accused’s presence at the time and place of the crime
Ø  any denials, evasions or contradictions on the part of the accused
Ø  forensic evidence (it requires a jury to make a connection between the circumstance (the fingerprints) and the fact (someone being guilty or not guilty of a crime).

AN EYEWITNESS (TO) – świadek naoczny (someone who has seen something happen and who reports on it, especially a crime)
AN INFERENCE – wnioskowanie, domniemanie (a conclusion or opinion that is made based on the information that one has)
THE ACCUSED – oskarżony (a person who is charged, usually in a criminal proceeding, with having committed a wrongful act)
RESISTANCE – opór (fighting against something)
A DENIAL – zaprzeczenie (a statement that something is not true)
AN EVASION – unikanie odpowiedzi na pytania (avoiding answering questions)
A CONTRADICTION – sprzeczność (when facts presented are in conflict, inconsistent, etc.)
FORENSIC EVIDENCE– dowód na podstawie zeznania biegłego medycyny sądowej (evidence obtained by the use of science, for example DNA evidence)



(1) Books, movies, and television often perpetuate the belief that circumstantial evidence may not be used to convict a criminal of a crime. But this view is incorrect. In many cases, circumstantial evidence is the only evidence linking an accused to a crime; direct evidence may simply not exist. As a result, the jury may have only circumstantial evidence to consider in determining whether to convict or acquit a person charged with a crime. In fact, the U.S. Supreme Court has stated that "circumstantial evidence is intrinsically no different from testimonial [direct] evidence. Thus, the distinction between direct and circumstantial evidence has little practical effect in the presentation or admissibility of evidence in trials.

TO CONVICT – skazać (to find someone guilty)
TO ACQUIT – uniewinnić (to find someone not guilty)
TO CHARGE WITH – stawiać zarzut/ oskarżać (to formally accuse of a crime)
INTRINSICALLY – sam w sobie (essentially, in itself)
TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE – dowód z zeznań (statements that are made in court by witnesses)
ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE – dopuszczalność dowodów (the quality of being allowed to be used/ accepted as evidence during a legal proceeding)

(2) “For those of you who watch a lot of television, don’t expect fireworks. A real trial is very different, and not nearly as exciting. There are no surprise witnesses, no dramatic confessions, no fistfights between the lawyers. And, in this trial, there are no eyewitnesses to the murder. This means that all of the evidence from the State will be circumstantial. You’ll hear this word a lot, especially from Mr. Clifford Nance, the defense lawyer. He’ll make a big deal out of the fact that the State has no direct proof, that everything is circumstantial.”

“I’m not sure what it means,” someone said. “It means that the evidence is indirect, not direct.
For example, did you ride your bike to school?”
“Yes.”
“And did you chain it to the rack by the flagpole?”
“Yes.”

“So, when you leave school this afternoon, and you go to the rack, and your bike is gone and the chain has been cut, then you have indirect evidence that someone stole your bike. No one saw the thief, so there’s no direct evidence. And let’s say that tomorrow the police find your bike in a pawnshop on Raleigh Street, a place known to deal in stolen bikes, the owner gives the police a name, they investigate and find some dude with a history of stealing bikes. You can then make a strong case, through indirect evidence, that this guy is your thief. No direct evidence, but circumstantial.”

A CONFESSION – przyznanie się do winy (admitting that you have done something wrong or illegal)
AN EYEWITNESS TO – świadek naoczny (someone who has seen something happen and who reports on it, especially a crime)
A DEFENSE LAWYER – obrońca (the legal representative for the accused)
A PAWNSHOP – lombard (a business that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral)
A SECURED LOAN – tu: pożyczka pod zastaw (a loan that is guaranteed by the borrower giving valuable property as security)                                 
COLLATERAL – zabezpieczenie (something valuable that you promise to give someone if you cannot pay back money that you owe them)
TO MAKE A STRONG CASE – przedstawić mocne argumenty (to provide strong, convincing arguments)



Saturday, 12 August 2017

US VERSUS UK: AM LAW 100 vs MAGIC CIRCLE

US versus UK: AM LAW 100 (US) vs MAGIC CIRCLE (UK)


AM LAW 100

the list of top 100 American law firms as ranked by gross revenue, profits per partner, and revenue per lawyer. The list is compiled by the American Lawyer, a monthly law magazine.


MAGIC CIRCLE

the name legal journalists use to refer to the top five elite law firms headquartered in the UK and known for corporate and finance work
1.    Allen and Overy
2.    Clifford Chance
3.    Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer
4.    Linklaters
5.    Slaughter and May

(1) The Am Law 100 posted solid gains in gross revenue and profits in 2016, but the revenue per lawyer figure dropped on stronger growth in head count.

(2) Excellent academic credentials, experience at an AmLaw 100 law firm, and California bar membership are required.

(3) According to the article “How to Land a Job in Big Law” by Kaitlin Edleman on TheVault.com website, there are two ways to get AmLaw 100 law firm job after graduation:    #1—Aim for a law school that is ranked at least within the Top 14 (commonly referred to as “T14”) by the annual U.S. News and World Report rankings. #2—If you do NOT attend a T14 school, you must be an all-star performer and graduate at least in the top 5% of your class.

(4) Student A: You are a banker with a lot of clout and you want to hire a magic circle lawyer.
Student B: You are a magic circle lawyer. Negotiate your hourly fee.

(5) No one wants to date a magic circle lawyer because they don't ever wash.

(6) How do I get to work for a Magic Circle law firm?
ü  Have 3 straight A grades at A level.
ü  Go to Oxford, Cambridge, London or Bristol University.
ü  Speak very clearly without any trace of regional accent.
ü  Captain your local hockey team at weekends.
ü  Enjoy fine wines, theatre, skiing, golf and squash.

REVENUE – przychód (the total amount of cash generated by the sale of products or services)
GROSS REVENUE – przychód brutto (total revenue received before any deductions or allowances, as for rent, cost of goods sold, taxes)
REVENUE (przychód) VS PROFIT (zysk): REVENUE – the total of all money that a company receives from people paying for its products or services; PROFIT – the amount left after deducting all costs, expenses, and taxes from the revenue
PROFITS PER PARTNER (PPP) – zysk przypadający na jednego wspólnika (total firm profits divided by the number of equity partners)
REVENUE PER LAWYER – przychód przypadający na jednego adwokata (gross revenue divided by the number of lawyers)
HEAD COUNT – liczba pracowników (the total number of people employed)
CREDENTIALS – osiągnięcia, również: kwalifikacje, referencje (previous achievements, training, and general background, which indicate that someone is qualified to do something)
BAR MEMBERSHIP – przynależność do izby adwokackiej danego stanu (being a member of the bar (also called ‘the bar association’) of a given state that may be mandatory or optional)
CLOUT – wpływy, znaczenie (influence or power)
THE HOURLY FEE – stawka godzinowa (how much someone is paid for an hour’s work)
A LEVEL = ADVANCED LEVEL – egzamin maturalny (a qualification (exam) in a specific subject taken by UK school students aged 16–18 after they have taken their  obligatory GCSEs; A levels are not obligatory but required for applying to university; students usually take three A levels)



Thursday, 10 August 2017

legal docs: REASONABLE EXPENSES



Legal docs: REASONABLE EXPENSES

REASONABLE EXPENSES – uzasadnione koszty (money you spend on work-related things in an acceptable/fair/practical way)

MEET AND CONFER – spotkanie stron przeciwnych w celu próby ugody lub ustalenia kwestii spornych (a requirement of courts that before certain types of motions and/or petitions are heard by the judge, the lawyers (and sometimes their clients) must "meet and confer" to try to resolve the matter or at least determine the points of conflict)

MERITLESS/WITHOUT MERIT – bezpodstawne (not based on a solid foundation/ argument)

AN OBJECTION – sprzeciw (a formal statement against something that has either happened or is about to happen during a court trial and asking for a judge to rule on the point immediately)

AN ABUSE – przypadek nadużycia (the use of something in a way that it should not be used, especially in a bad, dishonest, or harmful way)

THE DISCOVERY – przedłożenie materiału dowodowego stronie przeciwnej (the stage during preparations for trial when each party makes relevant documents available to the other party and can also request documents and other evidence or information from the other party)

INCUR NECESSARY EXPENSES – ponieść niezbędne koszty (to have to pay for something that was needed)

MOVING PAPERS – dokumenty związane ze składaniem wniosków (paperwork needed to submit motions = legal requests)

FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES – dla celów archiwalnych (so that you can store something in case it is needed later)

TO PROOF-READ/ to / PROOF – dokonywać korekty tekstu (to find and correct mistakes in a text)

E-FILING – elektroniczne wnoszenie pism procesowych (submitting legal paperwork to court via the internet = online)