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Monday, 13 August 2018

legal word of the day: A DEMURRER

legal word of the day: A DEMURRER

ENG: a “so what?” objection, a written objection to the pleading of the opposing party that says that although everything stated in the pleading (a claim or a criminal complaint) is true, there is no legal basis for a lawsuit

POL: zarzut procesowy
pismo stwierdzające, iż strona nie podważa twierdzeń pozwu /aktu oskarżenia i jednocześnie stwierdza, iż nie stanowią one podstawy roszczenia/ oskarżenia.

(1) While a demurrer admits the truth of the plaintiff's set of facts, it contends that those facts are insufficient to grant the complaint in favor of the plaintiff.

TO CONTEND – twierdzić (to argue, to claim)
A COMPLAINT (US) – pozew (a claim form (UK))
TO GRANT THE COMPLAINT IN FAVOR OF THE PLAINTIFF – wydać wyrok uwzględniający powództwo (to decide that the person who has brought the action wins)

(2) Even where the formal demurrer is no longer used, lawyers and judges often use the old term for an argument of the same type.

(3) A demurrer to evidence is a motion seeking dismissal on grounds of insufficiency of evidence from the prosecution to convict the accused.

A MOTION – wniosek (a formal request) 
DISMISSAL – oddalenie (throwing the case out of court)
INSUFFICIENCY OF EVIDENCE – niedostateczność dowodów (evidence that does not legally justify the judicial action demanded or requested by the parties based on its character, weight, or amount)
TO CONVICT – skazać (to find someone guilty)

(4) (UK) In civil law a demurrer as such is no longer available under the current law of England and Wales. However, two similar procedures may be employed where claims without merit need to be expeditiously dismissed: an application on notice for summary judgment and the power of the court to strike out the particulars of claim.

WITHOUT MERIT – bezpodstawne (not based on a solid foundation/ argument)
EXPEDITIOUSLY – bez zbędnej zwłoki (as soon as feasible, instantly)
AN APPLICATION (UK) – wniosek (a motion (US), a formal request)
ON NOTICE – za powiadomieniem strony/ stron (where notice is given to the other party or parties)
A SUMMARY JUDGMENT – wyrok w sprawie rozpoznanej na posiedzeniu niejawnym (bez przeprowadzania rozprawy) (also judgment as a matter of law, a judgment entered by a court for one party and against another party summarily, i.e., without a full trial)
TO STRIKE OUT – oddalić (to order written material to be deleted so that it may no longer be relied upon)
PARTICULARS OF CLAIM – uzasadnienie pozwu (the document setting out the case of the claimant; either contained in the claim form (pozew) or served on the defendant with the claim form)

(5) (UK) In criminal law demurrer is obsolete, although not formally abolished. It has been superseded by the more modern motion to quash, usually a verbal application to the judge to rule the indictment null and void and to stop the case. (Demurrer was pleaded in writing).
A MOTION TO QUASH – wniosek o oddalenie
A VERBAL APPLICATION – ustny wniosek (a formal request made before the court)
TO RULE SOMETHING NULL AND VOID – orzec o nieważności, dosł. uznać coś za nieważne i niebyłe (to decide that the document has no legal force)
TO PLEAD – tu: składać  (here: submit)

(6) (US) In civil cases the demurrer was replaced by the Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim.
A MOTION TO DISMISS FOR FAILURE TO STATE A CLAIM – wniosek o oddalenie powództwa z powodu braku podstaw roszczenia

 (7) (US) In a criminal case, a demurrer is a defendant’s assertion that the document laying out the chargesthe complaint, information, or indictment—is legally insufficient. In demurring, the defendant claims that the charging document is so flawed that it can’t be used to convict him or her.
A CHARGE – zarzut ( a formal accusation of a crime)
A COMPLAINT/ AN INFORMATION/ AN INDICTMENT – akt oskarżenia (a document in which a person is formally accused of a crime)

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