Ius est ars boni et aequi.

Prawo jest sztuką tego, co dobre i słuszne.


Sunday, 4 September 2016

legal word of the day: DUE PROCESS OF LAW

legal word of the day: DUE PROCESS OF LAW

ENG: a fundamental, constitutional guarantee that all legal proceedings will be fair and that a person will be given notice of the proceedings and an opportunity to be heard before the government acts to take away one's life, liberty, or property (PROCEDURAL DUE PROCESS)

also a constitutional guarantee that a law shall not be unreasonable, arbitrary, or capricious (SUBSTANTIVE DUE PROCESS)

to BE GIVEN (PRIOR) NOTICE – otrzymać (uprzednie) powiadomienie (to be informed about something important in advance)
THE PROCEEDINGS – postępowanie (a legal action)
ARBITRARY – przypadkowy, uznaniowy (based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system)

POL: sprawiedliwy/ rzetelny proces sądowy (węższe znaczenie oznaczające przestrzeganie prawa procesowego)
zachowanie reguł gwarantujących praworządność (szersze znaczenie, obejmuje zarówno prawo procesowe jak i materialne)

(1) No State shall … deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. (14th Amendment)

JURISDICTION – jurysdykcja (the authority of a court to hear a case connected with a specific geographic area)

(2) Although the words “due process of law” are not found in the Magna Carta, that charter is commonly treated as the historical antecedent of the Due Process Clauses.

a CHARTER – karta (a formal statement of the rights of a country's people, or of an organization or a particular social group)

(3) Williams argues that he was deprived of due process by two instances of jury misconduct: an instance in which a juror visited the county attorney's office during the trial on an unrelated child custody matter, and an allegation by Williams that he saw a victim's husband talking to jurors.
INSTANCES – przypadki (cases)

 MISCONDUCT – zakłócanie porządku postępowania (unlawful behaviour by a person with the administration of justice, by which the rights of the parties and the justice of the case may have been affected)
a COUNTY ATTORNEY – prokurator okręgowy dla hrabstwa (a public official who acts as prosecutor for the state in a particular county)
CHILD CUSTODY – opieka nad dzieckiem (the care, control, and maintenance of a child, which a court may award to one of the parents following a divorce or separation proceeding)
an ALLEGATION – zarzut  (a claim)

(4) The due-process-of-law violation was premised on the fact that he was not given prior notice and an opportunity to defend against the issuance of the writ before its issuance.

PREMISED ON – oparty (based on)
to BE GIVEN (PRIOR) NOTICE – otrzymać (uprzednie) powiadomienie (to be informed about something important in advance)
THE ISSUANCE OF a WRIT – wydanie nakazu sądowego (making a court order)

(5) Recently, a 2-1 majority of the District II Wisconsin Court of Appeals found no due process violation related to the destruction of the blood sample, affirming Weissinger’s conviction.

to AFFIRM THE CONVICTION – utrzymać wyrok skazujący w mocy (to uphold (confirm) a judgement in which the defendant was found guilty and convicted)

Polish sources to check out:

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