pro se (US) (Latin: ‘for oneself’)
występujący w swoim imieniu, bez pełnomocnika
advocating on one's own behalf before a court, rather than being represented by a lawyer.
a phrase with a similar meaning:
litigant in person (UK)
(1) Pro se litigants often lack a sufficient understanding of procedural and substantive law to initiate a lawsuit properly.
SUBSTANTIVE LAW – prawo materialne (the part of the law that creates, defines, and regulates rights)
PROCEDURAL LAW – prawo proceduralne (the body of law that prescribes formal steps to be taken in enforcing legal rights)
(2) People choose to act pro se in legal proceedings for a variety of reasons: they may wish to avoid the expense of hiring an attorney, the issues involved in the case may be simple enough to handle on their own, they may want to control their own case directly, and so on.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS – postępowanie sądowe (all actions that are authorized or sanctioned by law and instituted in a court or a tribunal for the acquisition of rights or the enforcement of remedies)
(3) The appellate court is not going to give a pro se party (any special treatment or relax the rules simply because that party is pro se and is not a lawyer.
(4) Pro se representation presents unique but not insurmountable challenges for claimants and the legal system.
a CLAIMANT – powód (a plaintiff)